School of Food Science and Nutrition

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Michael Rappolt

Professor of Lipid Biophysics
Research section: Food Colloids and Processing

Contact details

Room: P2.20
Tel: +44 (0)113 3431931


Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)
Wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS)
Synchrotron light
Lipid Biophysics
Phase stability
Crystallization, phase transitions
Particle characterization
Electron density maps

Photograph of Michael Rappolt

Research interests

Michael is a Physicist who is a leading authority on the use of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) on investigating the structure, shape and flexibility of lipid membranes. General goal is to understand their nanostructural response under different physico-chemical environments. Recent activities have been concentrated on the study of drug/membrane interactions with applications to drug delivery and food (Yaghmur, A., Sartori, B., and Rappolt, M. (2012): Self-Assembled Nanostructures of Fully Hydrated Monoelaidin-Elaidic Acid and Monoelaidin-Oleic Acid Systems. Langmuir 28: 10105).

He is currently Professor of Lipid Biophysics and shall integrate new experimental possibilities in the important area of nanostructure research collaborating with international colleagues as well as with his colleagues from the School of Food Science & Nutrition and related research groups at the University of Leeds. Research topics will concentrate on characterizing crystallization processes in food, investigation of colloid interfaces and the determination of particle structures on the nanoscale. Further, Michael shall help to transfer standard measurement techniques applied in food research such as mechanic (sound & shear) and thermodynamic sample manipulations to Synchrotron sites to elucidate food on a smaller (nanometre) and faster (micro-second) scale.

Useful links

Inaugural lecture   


Li NYD, Perutková Š, Iglic A, Rappolt M My first electron density map: A beginner's guide to small angle X-ray diffraction Elektrotehniski Vestnik/Electrotechnical Review 84 69-75, 2017
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Liossi AS, Ntountaniotis D, Kellici TF, Chatziathanasiadou MV, Megariotis G, Mania M, Becker-Baldus J, Kriechbaum M, Krajnc A, Christodoulou E, Glaubitz C, Rappolt M, Amenitsch H, Mali G, Theodorou DN, Valsami G, Pitsikalis M, Iatrou H, Tzakos AG, Mavromoustakos T Exploring the interactions of irbesartan and irbesartan–2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complex with model membranes Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes 1859 1089-1098, 2017
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Sadeghpour A, Sanver D, Rappolt M Interactions of flavonoids with lipidic mesophases In Advances in Biomembranes and Lipid Self-Assembly, Volume 25 , 2017
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Adal E, Sadeghpour A, Connell S, Rappolt M, Ibanoglu E, Sarkar A Heteroprotein Complex Formation of Bovine Lactoferrin and Pea Protein Isolate: A Multiscale Structural Analysis Biomacromolecules 18 625-635, 2017
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Meegan JE, Yang X, Rungsirisakun R, Cosgrove SC, Bushby RJ, Sadeghpour A, Rappolt M, Brydson R, Ansell RJ Synthesis and organogelating behaviour of amino acid-functionalised triphenylenes Soft Matter 13 5922-5932, 2017
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Iglič A, Rappolt M, García-Sáez AJ Preface, 2017

Sanver D, Murray BS, Sadeghpour A, Rappolt M, Nelson AL Experimental Modeling of Flavonoid-Biomembrane Interactions Langmuir 32 13234-13243, 2016
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Kulkarni CV, Yaghmur A, Steinhart M, Kriechbaum M, Rappolt M Effects of High Pressure on Internally Self-Assembled Lipid Nanoparticles: A Synchrotron Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) Study Langmuir 32 11907-11917, 2016
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Sadeghpour A, Rappolt M Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Phases for the Formulation of Future Functional Foods Journal of Nutritional Health&Food Engineering 5 -, 2016
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Gregersen SB, Povey MJW, Andersen MD, Hammershøj M, Rappolt M, Sadeghpour A, Wiking L Acoustic properties of crystallized fat: Relation between polymorphic form, microstructure, fracturing behavior, and sound intensity European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 118 1257-1270, 2016
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Bosch C, Sadeghpour A, Rappolt M, Birch-Machin M Differential protective effects of flavonols towards mitochondrial stress BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY 174 , 2016

Patil-Sen Y, Sadeghpour A, Rappolt M, Kulkarni CV Facile preparation of internally self-assembled lipid particles stabilized by carbon nanotubes Journal of Visualized Experiments 2016 -, 2016
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Iglič A, Kulkarni CV, Rappolt M Preface, 2016

Iglič A, Kulkarni CV, Rappolt M Preface, 2016

Joseph S, Rappolt M, Schoenitz M, Huzhalska V, Augustin W, Scholl S, Bunjes H Stability of the metastableα-polymorph in solid triglyceride drug carrier nanoparticles. Langmuir -, 2015
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Drasler B, Drobne D, Sadeghpour A, Rappolt M Fullerene up-take alters bilayer structure and elasticity: A small angle X-ray study. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 188 46-53, 2015
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Sadeghpour A, Rappolt M, Ntountaniotis D, Chatzigeorgiou P, Viras K, Megariotis G, Papadopoulos MG, Siapi E, Mali G, Mavromoustakos T Comparative study of interactions of aliskiren and AT1 receptor antagonists with lipid bilayers Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes 1848 984-994, 2015
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Iglič A, Kulkarni CV, Rappolt M Preface In Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes , 2015

Iglič A, Kulkarni CV, Rappolt M Preface, 2015

Carboni C, Carboni DG, Jozić D, Bernstorff S, Rappolt M, Al-Mahrazi S Synchrotron X-ray investigation of the layer spacing in a series of low molar mass bi-mesogen organosiloxane smectic materials. Phase Transitions 87 , 2014
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Drašler B, Drobne D, Novak S, Valant J, Boljte S, Otrin L, Rappolt M, Sartori B, Iglič A, Kralj-Iglič V, Šuštar V, Makovec D, Gyergyek S, Hočevar M, Godec M, Zupanc J Effects of magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on biological and artificial lipid membranes. International Journal of Nanomedicine 9 1559-1581, 2014
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Heftberger P, Kollmitzer B, Heberle FA, Pan J, Rappolt M, Amenitsch H, Kučerka N, Katsaras J, Pabst G Global small-angle X-ray scattering data analysis for multilamellar vesicles: the evolution of the scattering density profile model Journal of Applied Crystallography 47 173-180, 2014
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Heftberger P, Kollmitzer B, Rieder A, Amenitsch H, Rappolt M, Pabst G Temperature Dependence of Lo/Ld Domain Thickness and Elasticity by Global Saxs Data Analysis BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL 106 , 2014

Kollmitzer B, Heftberger P, Rappolt M, Khelashvili G, Harries D, Pabst G Protein Partitioning in Liquid-Ordered (LO) / Liquid-Disordered (LD) Domains Depends on Lipid Composition and Protein Shape Biophysical Journal 106 , 2014

Kollmitzer B, Heftberger P, Rappolt M, Pabst G Monolayer Spontaneous Curvature of Raft-Forming Membrane Lipids Biophysical Journal 106 , 2014
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Yaghmur A, Ostergaard J, Larsen SW, Jensen H, Larsen C, Rappolt M Drug Formulations Based on Self-Assembled Liquid Crystalline Nanostructures LIPOSOMES, LIPID BILAYERS AND MODEL MEMBRANES: FROM BASIC RESEARCH TO APPLICATION 341-360, 2014

Kollmitzer B, Heftberger P, Rappolt M, Pabst G Monolayer spontaneous curvature of raft-forming membrane lipids Soft Matter 9 10877-10884, 2013
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Yaghmur A, Rappolt M The micellar cubic Fd3m phase. recent advances in the structural characterization and potential applications. Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes 18 111-145, 2013
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Rittman M, Amenitsch H, Rappolt M, Sartori B, O'Driscoll BMD, Squires AM Control and analysis of oriented thin films of lipid inverse bicontinuous cubic phases using grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering. Langmuir 29 9874-9880, 2013
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Yaghmur A, Rappolt M, Larsen SW In situ forming drug delivery systems based on lyotropic liquid crystalline phases: Structural characterization and release properties Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology 23 325-332, 2013
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Pabst G, Kollmitzer B, Heftberger P, Rappolt M Modulation of ion-channel activity by cholesterol and ceramide EUROPEAN BIOPHYSICS JOURNAL WITH BIOPHYSICS LETTERS 42 , 2013

Kollmitzer B, Heftberger P, Rappolt M, Khelashvili G, Harries D, Pabst G Protein partitioning in liquid-ordered (Lo)/liquid-disordered (Ld) domains EUROPEAN BIOPHYSICS JOURNAL WITH BIOPHYSICS LETTERS 42 , 2013

Rappolt M Formation of Curved Membranes and Membrane Fusion Processes Studied by Synchrotron X-ray-Scattering Techniques, 2013
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Pabst G, Kollmitzer B, Heftberger P, Rappolt M Cholesterol Stabilizes Ion Channel Function during Sphingomyelinase Hydrolysis BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL 104 , 2013

Rappolt M, Cacho-Nerin F, Morello C, Yaghmur A How the chain configuration governs the packing of inverted micelles in the cubic Fd3m-phase SOFT MATTER 9 6291-6300, 2013

Yaghmur A, Rappolt MP The micellar cubic Fd3m phase: recent adevances in the structural characterization and potential applications, 2013

Fotakis C, Megariotis G, Christodouleas D, Kritsi E, Zoumpoulakis P, Ntountaniotis D, Zervou M, Potamitis C, Hodzic A, Pabst G, Rappolt M, Mali G, Baldus J, Glaubitz C, Papadopoulos MG, Afantitis A, Melagraki G, Mavromoustakos T Comparative study of the AT₁ receptor prodrug antagonist candesartan cilexetil with other sartans on the interactions with membrane bilayers. Biochim Biophys Acta 1818 3107-3120, 2012
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Pabst G, Prassl R, Amenitsch H, Rappolt M, Lohner K Scattering techniques in biology--Marking the contributions to the field from Peter Laggner on the occasion of his 68th birthday. Eur Biophys J 41 777-929, 2012

Yaghmur A, Rappolt M Structural characterization of lipidic systems under nonequilibrium conditions. Eur Biophys J 41 831-840, 2012
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Yaghmur A, Sartori B, Rappolt M Self-assembled nanostructures of fully hydrated monoelaidin-elaidic acid and monoelaidin-oleic acid systems. Langmuir 28 10105-10119, 2012
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Boulgaropoulos B, Rappolt M, Sartori B, Amenitsch H, Pabst G Lipid sorting by ceramide and the consequences for membrane proteins. Biophys J 102 2031-2038, 2012
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Ntountaniotis D, Mali G, Grdadolnik SG, Halabalaki M, Skaltsounis AL, Potamitis C, Siapi E, Chatzigeorgiou P, Rappolt M, Mavromoustakos T Erratum: Thermal, dynamic and structural properties of drug AT1antagonist olmesartan in lipid bilayers (Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (2011) 1808 (2995-3006)) Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes 1818 1436-, 2012

Kowlgi K, Lafont U, Rappolt M, Koper G Uniform metal nanoparticles produced at high yield in dense microemulsions. J Colloid Interface Sci 372 16-23, 2012
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Hodzic A, Zoumpoulakis P, Pabst G, Mavromoustakos T, Rappolt M Losartan's affinity to fluid bilayers modulates lipid-cholesterol interactions. Phys Chem Chem Phys 14 4780-4788, 2012
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Zupanc J, Drobne D, Drasler B, Valant J, Iglic A, Kralj-Iglic V, Makovec D, Rappolt M, Sartori B, Kogej K Experimental evidence for the interaction of C-60 fullerene with lipid vesicle membranes Carbon 50 1170-1178, 2012
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Yaghmur A, Rappolt M,Østergaard J, Larsen C, Larsen SW Characterization of bupivacaine-loaded formulations based on liquid crystalline phases and microemulsions: the effect of lipid composition. Langmuir 28 2881-2889, 2012
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Khelashvili G, Rappolt M, Chiu S-W, Pabst G, Harries D Impact of Sterol Tilt on Membrane Bending Rigidity in Cholesterol and 7DHC-Containing DMPC Membrane BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL 102 , 2012

Ntountaniotis D, Mali G, Grdadolnik SG, Halabalaki M, Skaltsounis A-L, Potamitis C, Siapi E, Chatzigeorgiou P, Rappolt M, Mavromoustakos T Thermal, dynamic and structural properties of drug AT1 antagonist olmesartan in lipid bilayers. Biochim Biophys Acta 1808 2995-3006, 2011
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Khelashvili G, Rappolt M, Chiu S-W, Pabst G, Harries D Impact of sterol tilt on membrane bending rigidity in cholesterol and 7DHC-containing DMPC membranes. Soft Matter 7 10299-10312, 2011
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Yaghmur A, Larsen SW, Schmitt M,Østergaard J, Larsen C, Jensen H, Urtti A, Rappolt M In situ characterization of lipidic bupivacaine-loaded formulations Soft Matter 7 8291-8295, 2011
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Pabst G, Sevcsik E, Rappolt M, Stockner T Stereo-specific effect of the analgesic drug ketamine on lipid membranes EUROPEAN BIOPHYSICS JOURNAL WITH BIOPHYSICS LETTERS 40 , 2011

Jungnikl K, Rappolt M, Shyjumon I, Sartori B, Laggner P, Amenitsch H Aerosol flow reactor with controlled temperature gradient for in situ gas-phase X-ray experimentsmeasurements of evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) in aerosols Aerosol Science and Technology 45 795-800, 2011
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Potamitis C, Chatzigeorgiou P, Siapi E, Viras K, Mavromoustakos T, Hodzic A, Pabst G, Cacho-Nerin F, Laggner P, Rappolt M Interactions of the AT1 antagonist valsartan with dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Biochim Biophys Acta 1808 1753-1763, 2011
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Amenitsch H, Bombelli C, Borocci S, Caminiti R, Ceccacci F, Concilio S, La Mesa C, Mancini G, Piotto S, Rappolt M Segregation into domains observed in liquid crystal phases: Comparison of experimental and theoretical data Soft Matter 7 3392-3403, 2011
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Shyjumon I, Rappolt M, Sartori B, Cacho-Nerin F, Grenci G, Laggner P, Amenitsch H Mesostructured silica aerosol particles: comparison of gas-phase and powder deposit X-ray diffraction data. Langmuir 27 5542-5548, 2011
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Tilley A, Dong Y-D, Amenitsch H, Rappolt M, Boyd BJ Transfer of lipid and phase reorganisation in self-assembled liquid crystal nanostructured particles based on phytantriol. Phys Chem Chem Phys 13 3026-3032, 2011
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Perutková Š, Daniel M, Rappolt M, Pabst G, Dolinar G, Kralj-Iglič V, Iglič A Elastic deformations in hexagonal phases studied by small-angle X-ray diffraction and simulations. Phys Chem Chem Phys 13 3100-3107, 2011
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Yaghmur A, Sartori B, Rappolt M The role of calcium in membrane condensation and spontaneous curvature variations in model lipidic systems. Phys Chem Chem Phys 13 3115-3125, 2011
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Yaghmur A, Rappolt M Recent advances in the characterization of lipid-based nanocarriers In Nanotechnologies for solubilization and delivery in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals , 2011

Rappolt M, Rössle M, Kaconis Y, Howe J, Andrä J, Gutsmann T, Brandenburg K X-ray scattering of bacterial cell wall compounds and their neutralization In X-ray scattering , 2011

Cojoc D, Amenitsch H, Ferrari E, Santucci SC, Sartori B, Rappolt M, Marmiroli B, Burghammer M, Riekel C Local x-ray structure analysis of optically manipulated biological micro-objects Applied Physics Letters 97 -, 2010
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Paasonen L, Sipilä T, Subrizi A, Laurinmäki P, Butcher SJ, Rappolt M, Yaghmur A, Urtti A, Yliperttula M Gold-embedded photosensitive liposomes for drug delivery: triggering mechanism and intracellular release. J Control Release 147 136-143, 2010
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Jerabek H, Pabst G, Rappolt M, Stockner T Membrane-mediated effect on ion channels induced by the anesthetic drug ketamine. J Am Chem Soc 132 7990-7997, 2010
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Dong Y-D, Tilley AJ, Larson I, Lawrence MJ, Amenitsch H, Rappolt M, Hanley T, Boyd BJ Nonequilibrium effects in self-assembled mesophase materials: unexpected supercooling effects for cubosomes and hexosomes. Langmuir 26 9000-9010, 2010
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Rappolt M Bilayer thickness estimations with "poor" diffraction data Journal of Applied Physics 107 -, 2010
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Yaghmur A, Paasonen L, Yliperttula M, Urtti A, Rappolt M Structural elucidation of light activated vesicles Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 1 962-966, 2010
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Fotakis C, Gega S, Siapi E, Potamitis C, Viras K, Moutevelis-Minakakis P, Kokotos CG, Durdagi S, Grdadolnik SG, Sartori B, Rappolt M, Mavromoustakos T Interactions at the bilayer interface and receptor site induced by the novel synthetic pyrrolidinone analog MMK3. Biochim Biophys Acta 1798 422-432, 2010
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Yaghmur A, Kriechbaum M, Amenitsch H, Steinhart M, Laggner P, Rappolt M Effects of pressure and temperature on the self-assembled fully hydrated nanostructures of monoolein-oil systems. Langmuir 26 1177-1185, 2010
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Brandenburg K, Howe J, Sánchez-Gómez S, Garidel P, Roessle M, Andrä J, Jerala R, Zweytick D, Lohner K, Rappolt M, Blondelle S, Moriyon I, De Tejada GM Effective antimicrobial and anti-endotoxin activity of cationic peptides based on lactoferricin: A biophysical and microbiological study Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry 9 9-22, 2010
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Yaghmur A, Rappolt M Liquid crystalline nanoparticles as drug nanocarriers In Colloids and drug delivery , 2010

Perutková S, Daniel M, Dolinar G, Rappolt M, Kralj-Iglič V, Iglič A Chapter 9 Stability of the Inverted Hexagonal Phase, 2009
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Arsov Z, Rappolt M, Grdadolnik J Weakened hydrogen bonds in water confined between lipid bilayers: the existence of a long-range attractive hydration force. Chemphyschem 10 1438-1441, 2009
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Mares T, Daniel M, Perutkova S, Perne A, Dolinar G, Iglic A, Rappolt M, Kralj-Iglic V Role of phospholipid asymmetry in the stability of inverted hexagonal mesoscopic phases. J Phys Chem B 112 16575-16584, 2008
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Yaghmur A, Laggner P, Almgren M, Rappolt M Self-assembly in monoelaidin aqueous dispersions: direct vesicles to cubosomes transition PLoS One 3 e3747-e3747, 2008
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Hickel A, Danner-Pongratz S, Amenitsch H, Degovics G, Rappolt M, Lohner K, Pabst G Influence of antimicrobial peptides on the formation of nonlamellar lipid mesophases. Biochim Biophys Acta 1778 2325-2333, 2008
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Rappolt M, Hodzic A, Sartori B, Ollivon M, Laggner P Conformational and hydrational properties during the L(beta)- to L(alpha)- and L(alpha)- to H(II)-phase transition in phosphatidylethanolamine. Chem Phys Lipids 154 46-55, 2008
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Yaghmur A, Laggner P, Zhang S, Rappolt M Modulation of lipidic nanostructures by designer short peptide surfactants EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES 34 , 2008

Dong Y-D, Dong AW, Larson I, Rappolt M, Amenitsch H, Hanley T, Boyd BJ Impurities in commercial phytantriol significantly alter its lyotropic liquid-crystalline phase behavior. Langmuir 24 6998-7003, 2008
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Hodzic A, Rappolt M, Amenitsch H, Laggner P, Pabst G Differential modulation of membrane structure and fluctuations by plant sterols and cholesterol. Biophys J 94 3935-3944, 2008
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Yaghmur A, Laggner P, Sartori B, Rappolt M Calcium triggered L alpha-H2 phase transition monitored by combined rapid mixing and time-resolved synchrotron SAXS PLoS One 3 e2072-e2072, 2008
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Shyjumon I, Rappolt M, Sartori B, Amenitsch H, Laggner P Novel in situ setup to study the formation of nanoparticles in the gas phase by small angle x-ray scattering. Rev Sci Instrum 79 043905-, 2008
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Rappolt M, Pabst G Flexibility and struture of fluid bilayer interfaces In Structure and dynamics of membranous interfaces , 2008

Rappolt M, Pabst G Flexibility and struture of fluid bilayer interfaces In Structure and dynamics of membranous interfaces , 2008